Event concept and panel description

The Black Sea and Balkans Security Forum 2023 will take place on 18-19 of May in Bucharest and is going to be the seventh edition of an annual event co-sponsored by the Public Diplomacy Division. With this occasion the Black Sea and Balkans Security Forum 2023 will bring a makeover aimed at cementing its role as the largest and most relevant security event in the wider Black Sea Region. The substance will remain the same, focused on offering an arena for structured debates in various in a wide array of formats on the most pressing issues in the field of defence, security studies and international relations.

The September 2022 edition took place on the back of the immense shock of the war in Ukraine, with discussion focused on the immediate effects of the war and ways to support Ukraine from both a military and humanitarian perspective. In May 2023, fourteen months after the onset of the war, the discussions will be taking place on clearer context. The long-term effects of this conflict will have started to crystalize, while the battlefields of Southern and Eastern Ukraine will provide a case study for how the newest military technologies fare in real life situations. Of course, the lessons to be drawn from this conflict expand way past the military domain, penetrating all strategic sectors. From energy, to logistic and health, the war highlighted our region’s vulnerabilities.

This year’s enhanced format seeks to match the complexity of the threats that we face, spearheaded by the Russian’s Federation unprovoked aggression in Ukraine. NATO’s new Strategic Concept signals the beginning of a new era in the Euro-Atlantic world, a tectonic shift which invites to a deep reflection process, rooted in the belief that in-depth analysis and strategic planned are two sides of the same coin. Between the 18th and the 19th of May 2023, the Black Sea and Balkans Security Forum will seek to just that: provide and arena for in-depth, high-level dialogue, solution-oriented dialogue aimed at shedding a new light on the ever-increasing complexity of the security environment.

The importance of the Forum in the regional security architecture was already well established, thanks to its previous six editions. The war in Ukraine augmented this role, by placing the region at the forefront of geopolitics. The Forum’s reputation translates in the participation of elite public officials, analysts, scholars, experts, representatives of non-governmental organizations and business sector engaging in in-depth analysis and multi-dimensional approaches to old and emerging challenges. In testing times, where old frameworks screech due to the weigh of the burden, this brings an invaluable transversal contribution, stretching from theory to practice, all the way to the regional and the global dimension of security studies and international relations.

The war in Ukraine and the reconstruction process, newly emerging defence technologies, energy security, common values, or hybrid threats are all facets of a highly interconnected structure of threats and opportunities, which define our geopolitical reality. With 42 panels scheduled over two days, the Forum will provide both in-depth analysis and comprehensive solutions to the complex set of threats that we face. By coagulating strategic and operational elites, the Forum will contribute directly towards a safer and more prosperous region and Euro-Atlantic world.

An impressive list of distinguished keynote speakers, panelists, and moderators from EU and NATO member states and partner countries participating either in-person or via online video connection holds the promise of lively, informative and meaningful debate at the Forum.

Security Challenges in the Black Sea Region. Increasing the Resilience of States Affected by Current Crises through Cooperation

  • What are the main vulnerabilities of the countries in the Black Sea region in the current political context and  the main opportunities for cooperation among them towards increasing  their resilience?
  • What further steps should Ukraine take to enhance its resilience against Russian aggression and how could the West help more effectively?
  • In what directions can Romania increase its support to Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova to mitigate the  shocks caused by Russia’s invasion?

The Reconstruction Begins Now. Ways to Support Ukraine’s Economy and European Integration of Ukraine and Republic of Moldova – in partnership with the German Marshall Fund of the United States

  • What are Ukraine’s main strengths  in its effort to integrate with the West?
  • How can we counter Russian disinformation aimed at undermining western public support for Ukraine’s reconstruction?
  • Where should the reconstruction start from? Which sectors of Ukraine’s economy are in most critical need of investment?
  • How can Romania make a meaningful contribution to the reconstruction process in Ukraine?
  • How can the Republic of Moldova increase its resilience in the face of hybrid actions of Russia?
  • How could the consequences of Russian aggression in Ukraine, economically and socially, lead to a slowdown in the reform process in the Republic of Moldova, necessary for EU integration and state modernization?

Standing by Ukraine. Cohesion of the Democratic World and the Challenges of a Year of War – in partnership with Centre for European Policy Analysis (CEPA), USA

  • In which areas should the West improve its performance and efforts to maintain cohesion?
  • From the perspective of Ukraine and Eastern Flank countries, what will be the most desirable elements of a future US and NATO Black Sea strategy?
  • How do we ensure proper implementation of the sanctions regime, including also third countries?
  • Is the West resilient enough in countering Russian hostile propaganda?

Can Europe Achieve Energy Independence? New Strategies for Old Problems – in partnership with Delphi Forum, Greece

  • How can the EU harmonize its ambitious transition to a climate neutral economy with its need to secure reliable energy supply?
  • How can EU countries act collectively in order to prevent future Russian energy blackmail and disruptions to Europe’s critical infrastructure?
  • How important and urgent are regional energy interconnectors for ensuring energy security and broader European integration?
  • What is the potential impact of Romania’s future development of its Black Sea offshore oil and gas reserves on regional and European energy independence?

Weaponization of Food as a Risk to World Stability – in partnership with University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Romania

  • In light of recent developments, what are the best tools to mitigate Russia’s cynical weaponization of food supplies?
  • How badly was Ukrainian agribusiness damaged by the war and what can be realistically done at this time to restore, at least in part, the country’s pre-war production and export capacity?
  • What practical measures can be taken in cooperation with the United Nations and other international organisations to prevent and mitigate the consequences of  a global food crisis caused by the war?
  • What are the lessons learned from Romania’s important logistical contribution towards facilitating Ukraine’s grain and ther exports?

Thanks for the tanks! Lessons learned from the battlefield in Ukraine and the future equipment of NATO forces

  • Considering NATO’s past emphasis on asymmetrical counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism operations mainly against non-state actors, what is the expected impact of the shift to state-on-state warfare as illustrated by Russian aggression against Ukraine on future priorities for NATO defence posture and military procurement?
  • The issues that have plagued supply chains in the past few years would likely be most acutely felt during prolonged military conflicts with massive rates of materiel replacement and ammunition consumption. How does this impact the depletion of existing national stockpiles and demand for increased production by domestic defence industries?
  • The war in Ukraine has exposed shortfalls in the indigenous capacity of European defence-oriented industries to provide meaningful and timely assistance to Ukraine while struggling to backfill national stocks. What will the relevant investment look like in the coming years?

Zeitenwende: Turning Point of the German Foreign and Security Policy – in partnership with Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Germany

  • The Zeitenwende signalled a fundamental shift in Germany’s strategic thinking underpinned by the allocation of euro 100 million for national defence, but it was not mirrored in the country’s long-term budgetary planning. What other major policy decisions can we expect during the crucial year 2023?
  • A substantial increase in Germany’s military power may reshape some of its foreign policy priorities. How will this systemic shift translate into concrete action regarding EU and NATO leadership and global reach?
  • Before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, European security architecture was built on the premise that war in Europe was unthinkable. In the current circumstances, how will Germany’s newly found role mould Europe’s security arrangements in the coming years?

Energy Opportunities in the Black Sea Region in the Context of Current Security Challenges – in partnership with West University of Timișoara, Romania

  • How will the Romanian energy mix look like in 10 years’ time? What impact will new technologies such renewables, hydrogen and small modular nuclear reactors?
  • What is required for Romania to become a regional energy hub and what will its impact be in the region and beyond?
  • The war in Ukraine highlighted Europe’s energy vulnerabilities in terms of hydrocarbons, especially gas as transition fuel. What will be the dynamics of the EU energy integration process, meant to ensure access to multiple sources of gas?

Societal Resilience and Emergency Preparedness – How Can We Prepare Critical Infrastructures for Medical and Civil Emergencies? – in partnership with Ovidius University of Constanța, Romania

  • What are the lessons learned from the Ukraine war when it comes to civil protection services?
  • How can Romania increase its health infrastructure resilience to internal and external shocks?
  • What is the potential of a full transition of health services to a coherent, integrated digital environment?
  • What types of initiatives can Romania implement in order to inform the general public about the cyber threats and its disruptive repercussions on social and health services?

One Year of War: Lessons Learned in the Unmanned Systems Domain

  • The war in Ukraine brought the widespread use of UAVs and UNVs. Where did they prove most useful and what are the lessons learned by both the military planners and the industry?
  • What is the role of kamikaze-drones during military operations? Will the war in Ukraine fuel a boom in the production of such drones and generalized usage during combat operations?
  • What technological developments in the field of unmanned systems appear to be more promising in the wake of Ukraine war?

Russian Political Warfare and Threats from High North to the Black Sea – in partnership with Norwegian Institute for International Affairs

  • Russia’s military operation is faltering, but the Kremlin remains effective in its effort to destabilize the democratic world through hybrid means. How could we evaluate the effectiveness of Russian political warfare in general and the specific ways in which it manifests itself?
  • What can the High North and Black Sea states do in order to cooperate against the common threat of Russian information warfare?
  • What are the similarities and differences between the Russian threats that the High North and the Black Sea are facing?

Presentation of the NUPI and New Strategy Center study on Russian Disinformation Campaigns in the NATO Space in the Context of the War in Ukraine

The Russian Federation uses hybrid instruments at a large scale, with disinformation campaigns often spearheading the offensive. The study seeks to uncover the mechanisms which enable Russian disinformation to spread within the NATO space, bringing together expertise from Romania and Norway.

Reconstruction of Ukraine. The Biggest Project of the Western World after WWII – in partnership with Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW), Poland

  • How long will it take and how much will it cost for Ukraine to recover after the war? What is the potential format in which aid for reconstruction can be provided coherently?
  • Which are the phases and priorities of the reconstruction process and how can the international organizations perform better?
  • How will the private and public sectors cooperate during this ample reconstruction process?

The Russian – Ukrainian War and IMINT Lessons Learned. New Challenges for Europe

  • Is the Russian failure in Ukraine tied to the West’s better IMINT performance?
  • What are the main challenges that NATO and EU need to face after the war in the IMINT field?
  • Is the wide availability of open source  information forcing intelligence services to become more analytical?

The Balkans at the Crossroads: Stability or a New Crisis? – in partnership with Belgrade Centre for Security Policy, Serbia

  • What are the main challenges for the Balkans in the context of the Ukraine war?
  • Will the security situation accelerate the integration of the Western Balkans in the EU structures or rather slow it down?
  • How important is the influence of external actors like Russia and China in the Western Balkans, and what interests do they pursue?
  • How can we increase the resilience of states in the Western Balkans in the face of disinformation attempts?

Protecting Critical Infrastructure. Safeguarding Communication Systems in Uncertain Times

  • Evolving definitions. How critical is critical?
  • How to fill the gap between the western and the east-central European NATO and EU member states in terms of density, transit capacity and quality of vital communication networks?
  • What are the implications for military mobility and trade flows?
  • How much will it cost to get things right?

What Will Security Architecture Look Like After the War? How We Can Restore Stability in Europe?

  • What credible security guarantees can Ukraine receive once the war ends?
  • What place is Russia likely to occupy in the future European security architecture, considering its blatant breach of the UN Charter, accepted international norms and the 1994 Budapest memorandum?
  • How will the US manage its long-standing commitments to Europe and the emerging challenges in the Indo-Pacific region? How long will it take for the NATO’s European members to assume responsibility for security in Europe while the US pivots to the Pacific?

New Energy Sources for the Black Sea and Balkan Region. Opportunities for a More Secure Future

  • The Black Sea region has a vast renewable energy potential, both onshore and offshore. How can a country like Romania use this opportunity to complement its existing gas and nuclear projects through cooperation with like-minded regional actors?
  • Will hydrogen, which has been long hailed as a game changer in the energy mix, emerge as the leading fuel in the next decade, given the vast hydrogen sulphide reserves in the depth of the Black Sea?
  • The Russian Federation has not shied away from attacking  critical energy infrastructure in Ukraine. What can we expect from Russia with regard to the Black Sea offshore oil and gas platforms or wind farms of other riparian countries and how can such facilities be best protected?
  • What are the main opportunities for cooperation, in both technical and security aspects, among Black Sea and Balkan nations regarding the development of regional energy potential?
  • New energy sources bring new technologies, but also additional risks. How can we protect our critical energy infrastructure from new challenges such as cyber?

Cyber Resilience in the Current War Context. Main Threats, Possible Developments – in cooperation with the Euro-Atlantic Resilience Centre, Romania

  • What have been the main types and targets of Russia’s cyberattacks against Ukraine and other countries in Europe? How can NATO and EU increase their resilience in the cyber sphere?
  • Is it conceivable that  public-private partnerships and other forms on international association may mitigate the inconveniences of world-wide decoupling resulting from Sino-American competition in cyberspace?
  • How important is the cultivation of digital  literacy for increasing the cybersecurity awareness of the population?

How the Conflict in Ukraine Will Influence the conduct of War in the Future – in partnership with King’s College, UK

  • The very notion of war has evolved over time, with the hybrid component being emphasized lately. What tendencies can we discern in the future ways of waging a war?
  • What sort of weapons and capabilities are likely to ensure superiority in a future war?
  • What elements are likely to cause escalation in future conflicts and which are the principles that should guide attempts at de-escalation?
  • How will emerging technologies and strategic thinking shape tomorrow’s war?

How Can We Define the Victory of Ukraine? Objectives and Strategic Impact – in partnership with Defense 24, Poland

  • Under what circumstances would the Russian Federation be willing to concede defeat?
  • What would be the significance of a defeated Russia for the balance of power in regions where it used to have a traditional  presence? What about the broader impact on the international system?
  • How important is popular support for the achievement of Ukraine’s strategic objectives? What ssort of assistance Ukraine needs to secure victory over Russia and full withdrawal of Russian troops from occupied territories, including Crimea?
  • What is the realistic time-frame for ending the war on Ukraine’s terms?

Migration and Border Security: New Challenges for Europe – in partnership with the Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Croatia

  • The migration issue remains at the top of the EU security agenda. What additional mechanisms are required to manage migration pressures and strike a politically satisfying balance between the principle of free movement of persons and the need for enhanced security?
  • How can the West frustrate Russia’s continued attempts to avoid the sanctions regime by introducing tighter border controls to prevent the smuggling of Western sensitive and dual use technologies?
  • How can the EU help partner countries such as Moldova to better protect their borders at a time  of war?
  • Considering that an important illegal migration route passes through the Balkans, what is the perception of the regional actors about the issue of border security in relation to their aspiration for EU integration?

New and Old Challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean Area – in cooperation with the Abba Eban Institute, Israel

  • Considering that countries like Greece, Cyprus, Turkey and Israel are vying for access to considerable gas resources in the Eastern Mediterranean, how will this affect the security environment in the region?
  • What are the major security challenges in the region right now and what outside geopolitical interests are involved?
  • Having been weakened by the war in Ukraine, will Russia be able to sustain its military and political presence in the MENA region, the Eastern Mediterranean in particular?

Impact of the Russia`s war in Ukraine on the Post-Soviet Space. – in partnership with the Caucasus Institute, Armenia

  • Is Russia slowly, but surely, losing its sphere of influence over the post-Soviet space?
  • What forms of resistance or opposition to Putin’s war have been emerging in the post-Soviet space at both societal and state level?
  • Solid evidence confirms that the war in Ukraine has seriously weakened Russia’s influence in Central Asia. How will this impact Turkish involvement in the region and Turkiye-Russia relationship, especially in the Caucasus?

Lessons Learned from the War in Ukraine for the Land Domain

  • What does the war in Ukraine tell us about the importance of land-based logistics in modern warfare? How much will the massive use of unmanned vehicles influence the future of land war?
  • What do Russia’s considerable losses in terms of tanks and armored vehicles to man-portable devices tell us about the future of tank warfare?
  • How will the usage of new forms of military technology, such as unmanned ground vehicles in combat and support roles, produce shifts in military doctrine and battlefield tactics?

Strategic Thinking in Times of Crisis. Managing Threats and Seizing Opportunities

  • What is the role of national parliaments in supervising and stimulating executive action in support of comprehensive security and cooperation in the twin regions of the Balkans and  the Black Sea?
  • What types of parlimentary action have proved most productive in bilateral relations and in regional or subregional assemblies?
  • How can parliaments and individual legislators from the EU and NATO member statesf help with the accession and integration process of candidate and aspiring countries in the two regions?

NATO Defence Policy and Host Nation Strategic Infrastructure. Smart Investments in Security

  • How important it is to have reliable infrastructural systems on the NATO and EU Eastern Flank in order to maintain military mobility and logistical support?
  • What are the practical means whereby NATO can collaborate with member states facing infrastructural challenges and with private contractors to build and maintain proper peacetime and wartime communications?
  • How can private companies and military institutions overcome bureaucratic inertia to complete vital infrastructure projects?

Future Russian Cooperation with China and Iran. Strategic Association or Opportunistic Collaboration? – in partnership with the Council on Geostrategy, UK

  • Which of the possible scenarios for the outcome of Russia’s war in Ukraine would be the most advantageous for China?
  • To what extent can China support Russia’s war aims without jeopardizing its own relationship with the West and its economic interests?
  • How will the Sino-Russian relations evolve on the back of Russia’s military failure in Ukraine, ever-increasing anti-American sentiment in the Kremlin and  deepening  systemic competition between US and China?
  • How will the increased United States focus on the Indo-Pacific region as a security concern influence the substance ofChina-EU collaboration and the future shape of the European security architecture?
  • Is there any room for China to play a role, not as an honest broker but rather as a facilitator and moderating influence for conflict management and other global issues?

Presentation of the New Strategy Center study: A Possible Ominous Partnership: The China-Russia’s ‘Friendship Without Limits’

The Sino-Russian relationship can be a determining factor in the outcome of the war, with hopes running high for a Chinese push towards a diplomatic resolution, compensated for by fears stemming out of possible military support. The “A Possible Ominous Partnership: The China-Russia’s ‘Friendship Without Limits” study puts forward an evaluation rooted in decades of diplomatic experience of how the relationship might evolve.

Challenges to the Defence Industry in NATO Countries in the Context of the Russia-Ukraine war – in partnership with Sibylline, UK

  • The war in Ukraine entailed huge consumption rates of ammunition and hardware, which strained the existing stocks and production capacity of defence industries in NATO countries. What would be the lessons to be learned for the future?
  • What are the main obstacles EU countries have to face in the process of integrating their defense sector?
  • How can NATO find a rational balance between supplying Ukraine in wartime and supporting the deterrence and defense capabilities of countries on its Eastern Flank, in immediate proximity of an active conflict?
  • As European allies increase their military bugets and seek to improve their defense industries, what is the state of play on the NATO-EU complementarity and interoperability with the US defense sector?

How to Avoid War Fatigue in the Western World? Coping with Economic Crisis and Social Problems while Resisting Kremlin’s aggressive autocracy

  • How can we ensure cohesion among Western partners in the face of major disruptions caused byRussia’s autocratic regime?
  • How resilient are NATO and EU countries in the face of Russian destabilization attempts?
  • Where did the Western world prove most vulnerable in its confrontation with Russian aggression, hostile disinformation, and weaponization of energy?
  • What will be the long-term impact of the war in Ukraine on Russia’s relationships with the US and the EU and the future of European security arrangements?

France’s Black Sea Strategy. Policy shift or long-term commitment?

  • What is the substance of France’s Black Sea strategy and the evolving nature of its military presence  in the region? Will France maintain its strategic print in the Black Sea after the end of the Ukraine war?
  • In view of the fact that the Black Sea and the Balkans form an interlinked strategic continuum, is France prepared to take the lead in promoting the accession of the countries in the two regions to NATO and the EU?
  • What are France’s foreign policy, security and defense priorities as a nuclear power and a permanent member of the UN Security Council?

Transatlantic Cooperation and the Challenges Posed by the Russia`s War in Ukraine. Stronger Together!

  • What are the main lessons for transatlantic political and military cooperation to be learned from the war in Ukraine?
  • How important it is for all NATO member states to have a common posture toward Russia in order to achiefe effective deterrence through resilience?
  • What further practical steps have to be taken to make sure that NATO-EU complementarity, cooperation and burden sharing are fully functional and the European partners are prepared to assume more responsibility for their own defence?

Prospects for Turkiye’s Foreign and Security Policy in the Current Security Context – in partnership with The Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA), Turkiye

  • What are the main elements of Turkiye’s Foreign and Security policy with regard to the war in Ukraine after more than one year of conflict?
  • What are the points of convergence and divergence between Russia and Turkey in regions such as the Black Sea, the Caucasus, Central Asia or the Middle East?
  • How did the war in Ukraine affect the relationships between Turkiye and various global actors, such as the USA, EU, China or Russia?

Wagner Group and Its Role in the War in Ukraine

  •  To what extent can paramilitary formation such as Wagner be more efficient in achieving battlefield objectives compared to regular formations?
  • What are the lessons learned after a year into the war from the employment of paramilitary organisations in conventional warfare?
  • Russia’s war effort is supported by a web of paramilitary organisations, formed and financed by local leaders. What impact does their presence have on the Russian command chain and how does the Russian leadership compensate for this fragmentation?
  • Recent coverage of Wagner focused mostly on its Ukraine operations. Is the group’s presence in Africa substantial enough to continue to generate instability and push migratory waves towards Europe’s Southern border?

Challenges to Western Military Capabilities in the Light of the Ukraine War – in partnership with the Centre for the Study of the New Generation Warfare, USA

  • To what extent has the war in Ukraine confirmed  the validity of Western multi-domain approach?
  • What have we learned in terms of logistical support and battlefield preparation?
  • How can we assess the effectiveness of the Unmanned Systems (aerial, naval and ground-based) in the light of their widespread use in Ukraine? How does that apply to countermeasures?
  • How can we make sure that the Allied military are capable to backfill their depleted stocks following sizable deliveries of weapons, equipment and ammunition to Ukraine?
  • How urgent is it to incentivize domestic production of defence items, especially in Europe, and how can it be realistically done?

War in Ukraine and Its Impact on the Naval Domain

  • What the future naval balance of forces in the Black Sea is expected  to look like after the war in Ukraine?
  • What is the relevance of the current international legal instruments concerning the status of the maritime domain in the Black Sea (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Montreux Convention, etc) in relation to the principles of national sovereignty, freedom of navigation and rights for commercial exploitation of exclusive economic zones?
  • What are the prospects for continued NATO presence in the Black Sea on either rotational or permanent basis after the war in Ukraine is over?
  • Based on the experience of Ukraine-Russia naval confrontations during the war, what would be the optimal structure of naval forces and coastal defences for the NATO littoral member states?

European Strategic Autonomy in the Next Decade. Reality or Utopia? – in partnership with Elcano Royal Institute, Spain

  • Under what circumstances can the European strategic autonomy project become a tangible target in the defense sector in order to become a meaningful player in the future European security architecture?What a realistic time-frame could be for full implementation?
  • How has the war in Ukraine impacted the scope of European ambitions about strategic autonomy?
  • Will strategic autonomy become more of a requirement and less of a choice with the American pivot towards Asia?

War and Disinformation. The Struggle for Truth After a Year of War – in partnership with the ”Mihai Viteazul” National Intelligence Academy, Romania

  • What are the main instruments used by Russia and other authoritarian regimes to push false or distorted narratives in order to sow discord and confusion among Western allies?
  • What vulnerabilities have been identified in the response of the western democracies to hostile propaganda, disinformation and fake news?
  • What are the most effective methods developed in the in the West to counter, individually and collectively, the effects of aggressive disinformation campaigns by enhancing the contribution of public institutions, media outlets and responsible social networks? Examples of best practice.

Security and Enlargement. EU Policy Towards the Western Balkans and the Black Sea Region as related to the Current Security Crisis – in partnership with the Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Romania

  • What practical steps still need to be taken by the Western Balkan countries and the EU institutions in order to expedite the accession process in keeping with accepted requirements and conditionalities?
  • How can the EU member states and the European institutions assist the candidate countries of the Eastern Partnership, Ukraine and the Rebulbic of Moldova, plus Georgia on the road to implementing all the criteria for EU membership, while preserving their security and territorial integrity?
  • What is the contribution that regional or subregional arrangements can make toward advancing European integration through further enlargement

One Front, One Vision, One Strategy. NATO’s Deterrence and Defence Policy Against Russian Aggression on the Eastern Flank

  • How important are the guidelines and clarifications introduced by NATO’s Strategic Concept in the context of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine?
  • What are the practical consequences of NATO decision to designate the Black Sea as a region of strategic importance? 3.  How can the Russian threat to European security and stability be evaluated after more than one year of active conflict?
  • Which are the main lessons for the allied military establishment to be learned from the war in Ukraine so far?
  • Which are the main vulnerabilities that have been revealed on the Eastern Flank of the EU and NATO and how the allies can do better in the following months and years in order to enhance deterrence and defence against the Russian aggression?